Tuesday, March 31, 2020
8 Crazy Things That Could Happen to the Workplace Within 30 Years Ever think about how the workplace of the future will be different? HereÃ¢â¬â¢s some food for thought: a few scenarios to consider as we plan our careers in a changing world. 1. Driverless CarsThis isnÃ¢â¬â¢t so much about the workplace, but will certainly change commutes and also fundamentally alter fields like mass transit and transportation, and maybe also change the face of the auto industry forever.2. No More OfficesMore and more companies might opt to have workers set up remotely, either at home or in shared co-working spaces. This will save companies lots of money on office space and give them the ability to hire talent from around the world.3. Big BrotherGPS monitoring might enable employers to track your location, your health, and your productivity. This certainly wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be popular, but as long as the technology exists, some companies will want to use it.4. WorkersÃ¢â¬â¢ ChoiceMore and more millennials entering the workforce are demanding that their employers mee t their ethical standards. Expect workers to switch companies and jobs more than they used to as they follow their passions and try to sculpt their ideal careers.5. Work Ã¢â¬ËTil You DropWeÃ¢â¬â¢re all living longer, and companies are getting rid of costly retirement programs. WeÃ¢â¬â¢ll all probably have to work much, much longer, particularly as medical advances keep us alive well past the life expectancy of our parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ parents.6. Part-Time PlusFreelancing may be the wave of the future. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s much cheaper for an employer to hire a freelancer, without having to provide benefits or health insurance. And many workers prefer the control and flexibility that lifestyle affords them. The steady 9-5 may be a dinosaur by the time our kids enter the job market.7. Artificial IntelligenceArtificial intelligence will start to replace as many jobs as feasible, putting more manual tasks in digital hands. This will destroy certain jobs, but create others in technology and serv ice.8. No More BossesZappos did it with their controversial Ã¢â¬Å"holacracy.Ã¢â¬ More and more companies are restructuring from the typical linear grunt-level-up-to-big-boss model. We can expect more lateral, integrative hierarchies to start forming, which will change the face of how we work and who we work for.9 ways the workplace will be different in 2050
Friday, March 13, 2020
USS Shangri-La (CV-38) in World War II and Vietnam AnÃ Essex-class aircraft carrier, USS Shangri-LaÃ (CV-38) entered service in 1944. One of over 20 Essex-class carriers built for the US Navy duringÃ World War II, it joined the US Pacific Fleet and supported Allied operations during the final phases of theÃ island-hopping campaignÃ across the Pacific. Modernized in the 1950s,Ã Shangri-LaÃ later served extensively in the Atlantic and Mediterranean before taking part in the Vietnam War.Ã Completing its time off Southeast Asia, the carrier was decommissioned in 1971. A New Design Designed in the 1920s and 1930s, the US NavysÃ Lexington- andÃ Yorktown-class aircraft carriers were intended to meet the limitations set forth by theÃ Washington Naval Treaty. This levied restrictions on the tonnage of different types of warships as well as placed a ceiling on each signatoryÃ¢â¬â¢s total tonnage. This system was further revised and extended by the 1930 London Naval Treaty. As the international situation deteriorated in the 1930s, Japan and Italy elected to depart the treaty structure. With the collapse of the treaty, the US Navy moved forward with efforts to create a new, larger class of aircraft carrier and one which made use of the experiences gained from theÃ Yorktown-class. The resulting ship was wider and longer as well as possessed a deck-edge elevator system. This had been incorporated earlier onÃ USSÃ WaspÃ (CV-7). The new class would normally embark an air group of 36 fighters, 36 dive bombers, and 18 torpedo planes. This included theÃ F6F Hellcats, SB2C Helldivers, andÃ TBF Avengers. In addition to embarking a larger air group, the new design mounted a more powerful anti-aircraft armament. The Standard Design Construction commenced on the lead ship,Ã USSÃ EssexÃ (CV-9), on April 28, 1941. With the US entry intoÃ World War II following theÃ attack on Pearl Harbor, theÃ Essex-class soon became the US Navys principal design for fleet carriers. The first four vessels afterÃ EssexÃ followed the class initial design. In early 1943, the US Navy requested several changes to improve future vessels. The most noticeable of these changes was lengthening the bow to a clipper design which permitted the installation of two quadruple 40 mm mounts. Other alterations included moving the combat information center under the armored deck, enhanced ventilation and aviation fuel systems, a second catapult on the flight deck, and an additional fire control director. Referred to as the long-hullÃ Essex-class orÃ Ticonderoga-class by some, the US Navy made no distinction between these and the earlierÃ Essex-class ships. Construction The first ship to move forward with the altered Essex-class design was USSÃ HancockÃ (CV-14) which was later re-named Ticonderoga. This was followed by additional ships including USS Shangri-La (CV-38).Ã Construction commenced January 15, 1943, at the Norfolk Naval Shipyard. A significant departure from US Navy naming conventions, Shangri-La referenced a distant land in James Hiltons Lost Horizons. The name was chosen as President Franklin D. Roosevelt had cheekily stated that the bombers used in the 1942 Doolittle Raid had departed from a base in Shangri-La.Ã Entering the water on February 24, 1944,Ã Josephine Doolittle, wife of Major General Jimmy Doolittle, served as sponsor. Work quickly advanced and Shangri-La entered commission on September 15, 1944, with Captain James D. Barner in command.Ã Ã USS Shangri-LaÃ (CV-38) - Overview Nation:Ã United StatesType:Ã Aircraft CarrierShipyard:Ã Norfolk Naval ShipyardLaid Down:Ã January 15, 1943Launched:Ã February 24, 1944Commissioned:Ã September 15, 1944Fate:Ã Sold for scrap, 1988 Specifications Displacement:Ã 27,100 tonsLength:Ã 888 ft.Beam:Ã 93 ft. (waterline)Draft:Ã 28 ft., 7 in.Propulsion:Ã 8 Ãâ" boilers, 4 Ãâ" Westinghouse geared steam turbines, 4 Ãâ" shaftsSpeed:Ã 33 knotsComplement:Ã 3,448 men Armament 4 Ãâ" twin 5 inch 38 caliber guns4 Ãâ" single 5 inch 38 caliber guns8 Ãâ" quadruple 40 mm 56 caliber guns46 Ãâ" single 20 mm 78 caliber guns Aircraft 90-100 aircraft World War II Completing shakedown operations later that fall, Shangri-La departed Norfolk for the Pacific in January 1945 in company with the heavy cruiser USS GuamÃ and the destroyer USS Harry E. Hubbard.. After touching at San Diego, the carrier proceeded to Pearl Harbor where it spent two months engaged in training activities and carrier-qualifying pilots. In April, Shangri-La left Hawaiian waters and steamed for Ulithi with orders to join Vice Admiral Marc A. Mitschers Task Force 58 (Fast Carrier Task Force).Ã Rendezvousing with TF 58, the carrier launched its first strike the next day when its aircraft attacked Okino Daito Jima. Moving north Shangri-La then began supporting Allied efforts during the Battle of Okinawa. Returning to Ulithi, the carrier embarked Vice Admiral John S. McCain, Sr. in late May when he relieved Mitscher.Ã Becoming flagship of the task force, Shangri-La led the American carriers north in early June and began a series of raids against the Japanese home islands. The next several days saw Shangri-La evade a typhoon while shuttling between strikes on Okinawa and Japan. On June 13, the carrier departed for Leyte where it spent the remainder of the month engaged in maintenance. Resuming combat operations on July 1, Shangri-La returned to Japanese waters and began a series of attacks across the length of the country. These included strikes that damaged the battleships Nagato and Haruna. After replenishing at sea, Shangri-La mounted multiple raids against Tokyo as well as bombed Hokkaido. With the cessation of hostilities on August 15, the carrier continued to patrol off Honshu and airdropped supplies to Allied prisoners of war ashore. Entering Tokyo Bay on September 16, it remained there into October.Ã Ordered home, Shangri-La arrived at Long Beach on October 21. Postwar Years Ã Conducting training along the West Coast in early 1946, Shangri-La then sailed for Bikini Atoll for the Operation Crossroads atomic testing that summer. After this was completed, it spent much of the next year in the Pacific before being decommissioned on November 7, 1947. Placed in the Reserve Fleet, Shangri-La remained inactive until May 10, 1951. Re-commissioned, it was designated as an attack carrier (CVA-38) the following year and was engaged in readiness and training activities in the Atlantic.Ã In November 1952, the carrier arrived at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard for a major overhaul. This saw Shangri-La receive both SCB-27C and SCB-125 upgrades. While the former included major alterations to the carriers island, relocation of several facilities within the ship, and the addition of steam catapults, the later saw the installation of an angled flight deck, an enclosed hurricane bow, and a mirror landing system. Ã Cold War The first ship to undergo the SCB-125 upgrade, Shangri-La was the second American carrier to possess an angled flight deck after USS Antietam (CV-36). Completed in January 1955, the carrier rejoined the fleet and spent much of the year engaged in training before deploying to the Far East in early 1956. The next four years were spent alternating between San Diego and Asian waters. Transferred to the Atlantic in 1960, Shangri-La participated in NATO exercises as well as moved to the Caribbean in response to troubles in Guatemala and Nicaragua. Based at Mayport, FL, the carrier spent the next nine years operating in the western Atlantic and Mediterranean. Following a deployment with the US Sixth Fleet in 1962, Shangri-La underwent an overhaul at New York which saw installation of new arrestor gear and radar systems as well as removal of four 5 gun mounts. Vietnam While operating in the Atlantic in October 1965, Shangri-La was accidentally rammed by the destroyer USS Newman K. Perry. Though the carrier was not badly damaged, the destroyer suffered one fatality.Ã Re-designated an anti-submarine carrier (CVS-38) on June 30, 1969, Shangri-La received orders early the following year to join the US Navys efforts during the Vietnam War. Sailing via the Indian Ocean, the carrier reached the Philippines on April 4, 1970. Operating from Yankee Station, Shangri-Las aircraft commenced combat missions over Southeast Asia. Remaining active in the region for the next seven months, it then departed for Mayport via Australia, New Zealand, and Brazil. Arriving home on December 16, 1970, Shangri-La began preparations for inactivation. These were completed at the Boston Naval Shipyard. Decommissioned on July 30, 1971, the carrier moved to the Atlantic Reserve Fleet at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard. Stricken from the Naval Vessel Register on July 15, 1982, the ship was retained to provide parts for USS Lexington (CV-16).Ã On August 9, 1988, Shangri-La was sold for scrap.
Saturday, March 7, 2020
Geology and Topography of Antarctica Antarctica is not an ideal place for a geologist to work - it is widely considered one of the coldest, driest, windiest and, during winter, darkest places on Earth. The kilometers-thick ice sheet sitting on top of 98 percent of the continent makes geologic study even more difficult. Despite these uninviting conditions, geologists are slowly gaining a better understanding of the fifth-largest continent through the use of gravity meters, ice-penetrating radar, magnetometers, and seismic instruments. Geodynamic Setting and History Continental Antarctica makes up just a portion of the much larger Antarctic Plate, which is surrounded by mostly mid-ocean ridge boundaries with six other major plates. The continent has an interesting geologic history - it was part of the supercontinent Gondwana as recently as 170 million years ago and made a final split from South America 29 million years ago. Antarctica has not always been covered in ice. At numerous times in its geologic history, the continent was warmer due to a more equatorial location and differing paleoclimates. It is not rare to find fossil evidence of vegetation andÃ dinosaursÃ on the now-desolate continent. The most recent large-scale glaciation is thought to have begun around 35 million years ago. Antarctica has traditionally been thought of as sitting on a stable, continental shield with little geologic activity. Recently, scientists installed 13 weather-resistant seismic stations on the continent that measured the speed of earthquake waves through underlying bedrock and mantle. These waves change speed and direction whenever they encounter a different temperature or pressure in the mantle or a different composition in the bedrock, allowing geologists to create a virtual image of the underlying geology. The evidence revealed deep trenches, dormant volcanoes, and warm anomalies, suggesting that the area may be more geologically active than once thought. From space, Antarcticas geographic features seem, for lack of a better word, nonexistent. Underneath all of that snow and ice, however, lie several mountain ranges. The most prominent of these, theÃ TransantarcticÃ Mountains, are over 2,200 miles long and split the continent into two distinct halves: East Antarctica and West Antarctica. East Antarctica sits on top of a Precambrian craton, made up of mostly metamorphic rocks like gneiss and schist.Ã Sedimentary deposits from the Paleozoic to Early Cenozoic age lie above it.Ã Western Antarctica, on the other hand, is made up of orogenic belts from the past 500 million years. The summits and high valleys of the Transantarctic Mountains are some of the only places on the entire continent not covered in ice.Ã The other areas that are free from ice can be found on theÃ warmer Antarctic Peninsula, which extends 250 miles northward from West AntarcticaÃ towards South America. Another mountain range, theÃ Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains, rises almost 9,000 feet above sea level over a 750-mile expanse in East Antarctica. These mountains, however, are covered by several thousand feet of ice. Radar imaging reveals sharp peaks and low valleys with topography comparable to the European Alps. The East Antarctic Ice Sheet has encased the mountains and protected them from erosion rather than smoothing them into glacial valleys. Glacial Activity Glaciers affect not only the topography of Antarctica but also its underlying geology. The weight of ice in West Antarctica literally pushes the bedrock down, depressing low-lying areas below sea level. Seawater near the edge of the ice sheet creeps between the rock and glacier, causing the ice to move much faster towards the sea. Antarctica is completely surrounded by an ocean, allowing sea ice to greatly expand in winter. Ice normally covers around 18 million square miles at the September maximum (its winter) and decreases to 3 million square miles during the February minimum (its summer).Ã NASAs Earth Observatory has a nice side-by-side graphic comparing the maximum and minimum sea ice cover of the past 15 years. Antarctica is almost a geographic opposite of the Arctic, which is an ocean semi-enclosed by landmasses. These surrounding landmasses inhibit sea ice mobility, causing it to pile up into high and thick ridges during the winter. Come summer, these thick ridges stay frozen longer. The Arctic retains around 47 percent (2.7 of 5.8 million square miles) of its ice during warmer months. The extent of Antarcticas sea ice has increased by approximately one percent per decade since 1979 and reached record-breaking levels in 2012 to 2014. These gains do not make up for diminishing sea ice in the Arctic, however, and global sea ice continues to disappear at a rate of 13,500 square miles (larger than the state of Maryland) per year.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Miller and Modigliani - Essay Example The higher the company is able to retain earnings, the lesser the dividends and the lower the retention, the larger the dividends. Finance managers then need to make a wise decision on dividends payments and investment fuelling funds from the net profit of the firm. Since the overall goal of doing business is profit maximization, organizations must know which of the two practices is better in terms of wealth creation. If it will not lead to wealth creation for the shareholders, the funds should be retained to support investment programmes. A conflict therefore arises on whether dividends payment impacts the value of the organization or not. Some critics argue that dividends are irrelevant in that the percentage paid to the shareholders does not impact the value of the business while others maintain that dividends are relevant as far as the value of the organization is concerned (Baker,2009). Modigliani and Miller Hypothesis (MM Hypothesis) Both are on the idea that dividends are irre levant in that they have no effect on the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s value and do not have serious repercussions on the firm. According to them, choosing an investment programme that will contribute to the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s profit is what is important in adding value to the business. The process of dividends sharing is less important. In the event of good markets, realistic investments, and proper tax allocation between dividend revenue and business capital, provided the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s investment programme, dividend sharing has no effect on the market price of shares. Their theory on irrelevance of dividends is grounded on the following assumptions; First is that the business is conducted in an environment of perfect capital markets characterized by availability of sufficient and free information at all times, no or less exchange expenses and realistic investments. The investors are not a threat to the market price of goods and services. Also the investors are assumed to be realistic, implying that the main and only goal of shareholders is wealth maximization without discriminations on dividends sharing. They need to be satisfied with the amount that they get from the shares. Modigliani and Miller assumed that tax is Ã¢â¬Ënon-existentÃ¢â¬â¢. Therefore there should be no tax disparities such that the tax levied on dividend is not the same with that of the earnings. If there is tax, it should be equal. The idea is to provide a differentiation between revenue from dividends and from capital earnings. Again, the investment programmes of the organization are assumed to be consistent, i.e. they do not change constantly. The investors most also be in a position to make an intelligent guess about future investment programmes and how much profit they will generate (Frankfurter, wood & wansley, 2003). The argumentÃ¢â¬â¢s bone of contention is that provided the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s investment decision, it can keep its revenue for financing investment programmes or distribut e the profit to the shareholders. The market share increases from the payment of dividends while other added shares pose a drop in the value of shares. This means that the market price does not change with dividends payment. The external business support is said to affect the dividend payment on the wealth of shareholders which makes them indifferent in deciding between dividends and keeping the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s revenue to channel investment programmes. In this view, the business external support that is said to affect dividends payment fails to capture mmÃ¢â¬â¢s hypothesis of dividends irrelevance. If dividends were irrelevant, the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s capital expenses would rely on their rate of dividend distribution (Banarjee, 1990). The assumption on perfect capital m
Thursday, February 20, 2020
Knowledge Management and Organisation Learning - Essay Example Modern business history lists a number of instances when knowledge-centred management has helped create competitive advantage of organisations and even countries formerly limited in financial and other resources. For Microsoft, Dell, IBM (which is believed to be one of the founders of the paradigm), Compaq, British Airways, Ryan Air and other major organisations knowledge management has become the cornerstone of success. The same is true for such countries as South Korea, Singapore, Malaysia and Hong Kong which rely on the national knowledge economy. Over the last two decades, organizations have often been described in terms of knowledge and learning with the help of such concepts as "learning organisation", "intellectual capital", "people-centred approach" or "knowledge based management". Cakar and Bititci (2001) perfectly summarise this trend in the following statement: "1980s were all about automation. In the manufacturing industry FMS, FAS, Robots, AGV'S etc. were commonplace. The 1990s have been about people, this is evident in the development of concepts throughout the 90's focusing on delegation, involvement, ownership cross functional teamwork, self managed works teams and so on The needs of modern business emphasize the role and importance of people and knowledge" (p.2). Also the idea of knowledge management appeared requested in 1990s the concept itself dates back early 1960s. Its advent is associated with classic works of Peter Drucker w. Drucker found out that on 1960s, He called this new era an informational one (Drucker, 1994). The ideas of Peter Drucker (1994), whom was the first to use term 'knowledge worker', became widely recognised in 1980s when a number of followers supported his idea that investments in human resources were increasingly becoming more cost-efficient than investments in machines. In 1986, European knowledge management pioneer Karl-Erik Sveiby described the concept of a "know-how company" (Doz, Santos & Williamson, 2001), and in 1991 the ideas of knowledge management were reconsidered by Ikujiro Nonako whom presented the idea of "knowledge-creating company". The 1996 could be considered the turning point in history of knowledge management: the influence of this paradigm became overwhelming in absolute majority of the developed countries (Skyrme, 2002). The ideas and concepts related to knowledge managements were successfully applied in the oil, pharmaceutical, high technology, financial, and other industries. Main Body Knowledge management is a new form of management which helps organizational adaptation, survival and competence in face of increasingly discontinuous environmental change. This broader perspective incorporates the processes of knowledge use, knowledge creation, knowledge sharing, knowledge transfer and knowledge renewal (Malhotra, 1998). Therefore, knowledge management is commonly defined as "the explicit and systematic management of vital knowledge and its associated processes of creating, gathering, organizing, diffusion, use and exploitation, in pursuit of
Sunday, February 9, 2020
Stem Cells - Research Paper Example Stem Cells The most important characteristic of stem cells is the potential to transform into different types of cells. Besides, stem cells can perform the role of a repair system within human body. Within this scenario, Embryonic Stem Cells are generally used for regenerative medical purposes. On the other side, Adult Stem Cells are helpful for the treatment of deadly diseases generally noticed among human beings. The Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells are used for research purposes, aiming to develop proper medication for deadly diseases. So, one can see that the scientific research related to stem cells can solve some of the health problems faced by human beings in general. Thesis statement: The stem cells like Embryonic Stem Cells (ESC), Adult Stem Cells (ASC), and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSC) are helpful to develop medicines and proper remedy for deadly diseases, especially like bone-marrow transplantation for blood cancer. Stem cell types This section is broadly divided in to: Embryonic Stem Cells, Adult Stem Cells, and The Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. Embryonic Stem Cells These stem cells are developed from human embryos, especially from the inner parts of embryos undergoing the process of growth. Crocker (2008) states that, Ã¢â¬Å"Stem cells, both embryonic and adult, could be used to replace damaged tissue in several waysÃ¢â¬ (p.6). To be specific, these cells within this stage of growth can be used for tissue transplantation and similar medical uses. But these cells cannot be simply injected into human bodies because the same may develop into unexpected tumors. Besides, some human bodies may reject this type of stem cells and scientists are working hard to find out an apt solution for this problem. Still, these stem cells can be used for regenerative medication purposes. On the other side, one can see that the research work related to these stem cells provide hope to humanity because the same was successfully used in the year 2010 among the victims of spinal injury. In short, further research within this field may prove importance of this stem cell because research work related to the same is undergoing gradual progress. Adult Stem Cells These stem cells are generally used for research and treatment purposes. In addition, the research on this type of stem cells attracts less criticism because it is not produced from embryos. Zyl (2009) states that, Ã¢â¬Å"Some physicians and scientists believe that adult stem cells are not as versatile or effective as embryonic stem cells, while others have shown that adult stem cells are highly effective against most major diseasesÃ¢â¬ (p. xiii). As these stem cells are collected from adults, there is less risk because rejection related to human immunity is out of focus. Besides, medical treatment related to these stem cells proves to be successful because the same is used for the treatment of leukaemia and other diseases. Still, further research can unveil the future scope of this type of stem cells within the context of medical treatment. So, one can see that the research related to this type of stem cells show rapid progress and is helpful to fight some deadly diseases. The Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells The IP stem cells are developed by scientists by reprogramming the same to acquire the main characteristics of ES cells. To be specific, this stem cell is important within the scenario of stem cell research, especially in
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Plato, three Socratic Dialogues - Essay Example Euthyphro is aghast that a wise man like Socrates is being tried for corrupting the young ones and tells him that people do not like others to spread wisdom and are jealous of people who are wise. The two start talking and in the ensuing dialogues Socrates asks Euthyphro to explain the concept of piety. Euthyphro replies that piety is fighting for justice as he is doing by prosecuting his father for a murder. He laments the fact that he is hated for his action by the people although those very people have high regards for Zeus, the king of Gods, even though Zeus had punished his father (Kronos) for devouring his sons! When further pressed for the definition of piety, Euthyphro tells Socrates that whatever is held dear to God is pious and what is not dear to God is impious. He further said that even Gods have enmities and differences. Socrates counters that argument by telling that what may be liked by one God may not necessarily true for another God. Hence difference of opinion may account for the enmities and hatred between Gods and people. He asserts that everyone likes just and honourable things or persons and dislike the opposite. But it is the difference of opinions that brings about enmities and hatred. When Socrates is still not satisfied with the definition of piety, Euthyphro finally says that everything that Gods love is pious and holy and the things or persons they hate is impious and unholy. Socrates confused Euthyphro by questioning whether Gods loved things because they were pious or things were pious because Gods loved them? The dialogues, in the form of questions and answers, between the two are especially relevant even today because they establish the credibility of questions as an important means to reach towards a correct and justified answer. In simple words, the questions make us thinks about the different aspects of the problems and help us to come to a right conclusion. Socrates was a great philosopher who